Types of Communication PDF Summary
Dear readers, today we are going to share the Types of Communication PDF for all of you. As you all know that the medium through which we can share our thoughts and our things with each other is called communication. We use communication every day in our daily life, but some people do not have much knowledge about how to do communication properly.
And how good communication skill makes our work very easy. The word communication is derived from a Latin word, Communicare. If communication is translated into the Hindi language then it means communication. As you know our language helps us a lot in communicating with other people.
We can easily convey our thoughts and our words to other people through our language. Not only humans but also animals and birds communicate with each other. It is not necessary for two people to be in the same place to communicate. If a person wants to communicate with another person and that person is far away even then they can communicate very easily.
Types of Communication PDF – Part I: Communication
Communication is of several types and may be classified as follows:
1. Verbal Communication: In verbal communication words and language are used to convey the message. Verbal communication is of two types:
(a) Oral communication: It means communication through spoken words. It may be face-to-face (lecture, seminar, conference, meeting, informal conversation, chit-chat, gossip, or telephone). A clear voice and tone are necessary for effective oral communication. Speaking at too fast/slow speed or two high/low volumes impairs oral communication:
(b) Written communication: Communication via SMS, e-mail, letter, brochure, handbook, or report is written communication. Such communication is essential in the case of formal business interactions (memos, proposals, press releases, contracts, etc.) and legal documentation. Grammar, vocabulary, writing style, etc. determine the effectiveness of written communication.
Verbal communication is the easiest and fastest form of communication. Even then it constitutes a very small part (about 7 per cent) of all human interactions.
2. Non-Verbal Communication: Communication without using words is called non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication may take the following forms:
(a) Body Language: Communication through facial expressions, gestures, stance, touch and other physical signs is called body language. For example, leaning forward may indicate interest and acceptance whereas leaning backwards may mean rejection and lack of interest. Body language (e.g. smile, frown, clenching of hands etc. can transmit emotions which cannot be expressed through words. Body language constitutes a major part (about 55 per cent) of all communication.
(b) Paralanguage: Pitch, tone, quality, etc. of voice is known as paralanguage. The way one speaks, rather than words, reveals the intent of the speaker. Paralanguage constitutes about 38 per cent of all communications.
(c) Aesthetics: Music, dancing, painting sculpture and other forms of art serve as means of communication. These convey the feelings and thoughts of artists.
(d) Appearance: Dress and grooming create the first impression. In offices, there is a dress code. Formal dress for men may consist of shirt, trousers, coat and leather shoes. For women, it may consist of a saree, suit, shirt, trousers or skirt.
(e) Symbols: Symbols may relate to religion, status, ego, etc. These convey a special meaning. For example, the number of stars on the shirt of a police officer reveals his/her status.
3. Visual Communication: In visual communication, signs, drawing, graphic design, colour, illustration and other visual aids are used to convey the message. For example, colours are used to control traffic. Visuals such as graphs, pie charts, flow charts, etc. convey considerable information in a clear and concise manner. These are powerful mediums and are an essential part of official presentations.
4. Audio-Visual Communication: Use of voice and visuals together is called audio-visual communication. Radio is an audio medium while television and films are audio-visual media of communication. The combination of spoken words and pictures is a very powerful form of combination.
5. Formal Communication: Communication through the organisational hierarchy (chain of command) and in accordance with the policies, rules and conventions of the organization is called formal communication. It can be both oral and written. Formal communication can be in the following patterns:
(a) Vertical communication: The flow of information downwards and upwards in the organization is called vertical communication. Managers pass down orders and instructions to their subordinates for implementation. Subordinates transmit reports, suggestions, grievances and requests to their superiors.
(b) Horizontal communication: Communication between individuals/departments at the same level of authority is known as horizontal communication. For example, heads of production and marketing departments hold a meeting to discuss the quality and price of a product.
(c) Diagonal Communication: This type of communication takes place between employees working in different departments and at different levels of authority. Such cross-functional communication reduces the chances of distortion or misrepresentation. For example, the marketing manager may directly ask a factory manager about the cost and quality of output.
6. Informal Communication: When two or more employees in an organization exchange views without following the official rules and procedures it is called informal communication or grapevine.
Grapevine. It is unofficial, friendly and casual. It is based on common interests and attitudes. It helps to satisfy the social needs of employees and to build relationships. For example, during the lunch break, employees working in different departments of an organization may discuss new leave rules.
Networks Of Communication
The pattern used to share information is known as a communication network. Members of an organisation use various types of communication flows as per their needs. In some organizations, there are prescribed networks for communication.
The main types of communication networks are given below:
1. Vertical Network:
The vertical network is usually between the superior and subordinate and vice versa. It is two-way communication. Immediate feedback is possible in this type of communication network. It is a formal network.
2. Circuit Network:
Under this network, two persons communicate with each other. Say Mr. ‘A’ sends a message to Mr. ‘B’. After receiving the message Mr. ‘B’ communicates the feedback message to Mr. ‘A’. So communication takes the form of a circuit. Therefore it is known as a circuit network. It is similar to a vertical network but in a circuit networks ‘A’ and ‘B’ are not necessarily superior and subordinates.
3. Chain Network:
This network of communication follows the organisational hierarchy and chain of command. All subordinates receive commands or instructions from their superiors. B, C, D and E, F, and G are the subordinates to A in the organisational hierarchy and receive commands from ‘A’ which follows the way shown in the diagram.
4. Wheel Network:
Here all subordinates receive commands from one superior. This is a highly centralized type of communication network where each subordinate receives commands or instructions from a single authority or superior ‘A’ and wants immediate feedback.
5. Star Network:
Under the star communication network, all members of the group communicate with each other and exchange information. This network is a must for group communication or where teamwork is involved. This network channel of communication is open to all members of the group. The members communicate with each other without hesitation.
The effectiveness of the above networks of communication channels depends upon their users i.e. the managers at all levels, their subordinates and other members of the organisation and above all the seriousness with which all these human resources make use of the facilities provided to them by the organisation to accomplish its objectives.
Types of Communication PDF – Meaning Of Communication
The word communication has been derived from the Latin ‘Communicare, which means “to share”. Communication may, therefore, be defined as the process of sharing (exchanging) information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions between two or more persons.
Process Of Communication
The communication process consists of the following elements:
1. Sender: The sender is the person who initiates the process of communication. The sender may be a speaker, a writer, an actor, a painter, etc.
2. Encoding: The process of converting the message into words, symbols, pictures, etc. is called encoding.
3. Message: Message means whatever is to be communicated. It is the heart of the communication process.
4. Channel: The medium through which the message is sent is called the channel. It may be a speech, a letter, an e-mail, an SMS, a gesture, a sound, etc.
5. Receiver: The person to whom the message is sent is the receiver. The receiver may be a listener, a reader or a viewer.
6. Feedback: The reaction or response to the message is called feedback.
7. Noise: Any disturbance, hurdle or barrier to communication is noticed.
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