The Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes PDF

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The Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes - Description

Greetings to all, The Chapter 5 Science Class 9 Notes help students to learn all the essential concepts of the fundamental unit of life and the importance of life and evolution over the billions of years. The Class 9 Science Chapter 5 Notes will help students understand the topics covered in the chapter. Students can learn from the revision notes provided here to secure well in their exams. The Fundamental Unit Of Life Class 9 Notes PDF is prepared and collected by our subject-matter experts. Students can download this PDF for free of cost and devise the concepts in their exam preparation.

1. Board CBSE
2. Textbook NCERT

3. Class Class 9
4. Subject  Notes
5. Chapter Chapter 5
6. Chapter Name The Fundamental Unit of Life
7. Category CBSE Revision Notes

The Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes PDF- Short Notes

Cells form the basic structure of an organism and a collection of similar cells that perform an organized function form a Tissue. Each tissue serves a particular purpose and can be combined with other tissues to form organs. These carry out essential life processes like metabolism, growth, reproduction, etc. in unicellular and multicellular organisms. Here are some examples of tissues and organs in plants and animals:

Category  Tissues Organs
Plants Phloem, Xylem, Protective, etc. Leaves, Roots, Stems, etc
Animals Connective, Muscular, Nervous, etc Heart, Liver, Kidney, etc

Types of Cells
Regardless of the complexity as well as type of organism, cells are mainly divided into two categories. Mentioned below is a distinction between the 2 major types of cells in our fundamental unit of life class 9 notes-
Prokaryotic Cells
Cells in which a true nucleus is absent are called Prokaryotic Cells. Since they do not contain any membrane-bound organelle, these are always unicellular organisms, such as Bacteria, Blue-Green Algae, Amoeba, etc.
Eukaryotic Cells
Cells that have a true nucleus are called Eukaryotic Cells. These are complete cells that contain a nucleus, mitochondria, and another membrane-bound organelle. These are always multicellular organisms like animals, plants, fungi, etc.
Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells:

Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells
Nucleus and nucleolus are absent Nucleus and nucleolus are present
Membrane-bound organelles can be seen Membrane-bound organelles can be seen
Contain a single chromosome Contain multiple chromosomes
Budding or fission cell division Mitotic or meiotic cell division

The Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes PDF- Structure of a Cell

Whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, the cells have a similar structure up to some extent. A variety of key features of the cell are the same. A cell is essentially made up of 4 main components:

  1. Cell Wall and Cell Membrane
  2. Nucleus
  3. Cytoplasm
  4. Cell Organelle

Cell Membrane and Plasma Membrane
It is a biological membrane that separates a cell’s contents from its outside surrounding or external environment.

  • Thin-walled, elastic, and semi-permeable
  • Made up of proteins and lipids
  • It is a living component of the cell


  • Protects the contents of the cell from its external environment
  • Its semi-permeable allows only selective materials to flow in and out of the cell

Cell wall
The next important topic in our fundamental unit of life class 9 notes is the Cell Wall. It is a structural layer just outside the plasma membrane.

  • Flexible, tough, or rigid in some cells
  • Non-living and freely permeable
  • Made up of cellulose


  • Protects the cell membrane
  • It is majorly responsible for maintaining the shape and size of the cell
  • Prevents the cell from becoming flaccid and from drying out.

A nucleus refers to an organelle that is found in eukaryotic cells and contains the genetic material of a cell.

  • It is spherical in shape and is enclosed in a nuclear membrane (also known as the nuclear envelope)
  • Contains a type of protoplasm called nucleoplasm in which the nucleus is suspended
  • The nucleus contains chromosomes that are made up of proteins and specific molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Chromosomes are, therefore, the carriers of an organism’s genetic information


  • Regulates the cell cycle and is responsible for cell division, protein synthesis, growth, etc.
  • Controls the metabolic activity of cellular components
  • Controls the genetic characteristics of an organism
  • Stores hereditary materials in the form of DNA

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