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Dear users, today we are going to share the School Management and Administration PDF for all of you. School Management and Administration is one of the famous books. This book will clearly explain about school administration and educational management to institutional planning for those who are in the field of any type of studies and education.

School Management and Administration book was written by S. K. Kochhar. S. K. Kochhar was one of the very popular authors. Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. Educational management is centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education.

These purposes or goals provide the essential sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions. This wonderful book also prepares for those readers who face the new challenges of the twenty-first century in the areas of educational administration and management.

School Management and Administration PDF

1.1 Concept of Educational Management

The origin of development of educational management as a field of study began in the United States in the early part of the 20th century. Development in the United Kingdom came as late as the 1960’s Herding wrote a Practical handbook of School Management by Teachers.

(1) Some General Principles of Management Applied to the Problems of School System Franklin Bobbit of the University of Chicago published an article in 1913. (2) Jesse Newton published Educational Administration as a Social Policy (1934). (3) Koopman et.al, wrote Democracy in School Administration (1934).

Meaning of Educational Management

Educational management operates in educational organizations. As Tony Bush (1986), puts it, “Most of the definitions of educational management which have been offered by writers are partial because they reflect the particular sense of the author. Those which attempt a broader approach are often bland.”

“School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers. The writers in the field have interpreted these principles and precepts in various ways, usually be a reference to larger and more fundamental principles of psychology, sociology and ethics.” -Paul Monroe : (1913)

“Management implies an orderly way of thinking. It describes in operational terms what is to be done, how it is to be done, and how we know when we have done it. Management is not an arcane mystique. It is a method of operation. Good management should result in an orderly integration of education and society -Shelley Umana : (1972)

1.2 Need of Educational Management

While writing about the purpose of educational management Kandel says, “Fundamentally the purpose of educational management is to bring pupils and teachers under such conditions as well as more successfully promote the ends of education. “Sir Graham Balfour writes very aptly, “the purpose of educational management is to enable the right pupils to receive the right education from the right teachers, at a cost within the means of the state, which will enable pupils to profit by their learning.

In a democratic country like ours, educational management is a necessity. Some suitable, stable elements are properly motivated and organised in the machinery becomes necessary to withstand and survive the changes and upheavals caused because of changes in Governments. Superior educational management in fact is so basic to the satisfactory functioning of democracy.

Errors of judgement can be retrieved in a farm or factory but these can be fatal when we are concerned with
the moulding of ideas and values of society. An efficient and sound system of educational management is, in fact, the basis of a good democracy.

1.3 Nature of Educational Management

It is the management of educational institutions to foster teaching and learning. As a field of practice, it has some aspects in common with other fields of management, such as public administration, hospital administration and business management. As a field of study emerged first at the Teacher’s Training College of Columbia University and was followed shortly by the graduate programme of Stanford University, University of Chicago and other institutions in the U.S.A. Indian Universities had their place only in the 1670s.

Since the 1950s educational tradition has become a field of study in its own right. As an applied field it has much in common with other applied fields such as medicine, engineering, etc. It builds upon psychology, sociology, economics, political science and other behavioural sciences. For the past twenty to thirty years emphasis has increased on the development of theory and research in educational management. Also has increased understanding of educational Notes organization and the people working in them yet, there is much to be achieved.

The terms educational management and educational organization are frequently used in place of educational management.

(1) Dynamic Function

As a dynamic function, educational management has to be performed continuously, in an ever-changing environment. It is constantly engaged in the moulding of the enterprise. It is also concerned about the alternation of the environment itself so as to ensure the success of the enterprise. Thus, it is a never-ending function.

(2) Practicability

The school management must not be a bundle of theoretical principles but must provide practical measures to achieve the desired objectives Whatever the objective that is decided must be made achievable and practicable to avoid frustration.

(3) Distinct Process

Management is a distinct process to be performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources. A different form of activities, techniques and procedures, the process of management consists of such functions as planning, organizing staffing, directing, coordinating, motivating and controlling.

(4) Needed at All Levels of the Organization

According to the nature of the task and the scope of authority, management is needed at all levels of the organization, e.g. top level, middle level and supervisory level. Like the executive, the lowest level supervisor has also to perform the function of decision-making in one way or another.

(5) System of Authority

Authority to get the work accomplished from others is implied in the very concept of management since it is a process of directing men to perform a task. Authority is the power to compel men to work in a certain manner. Management cannot work in the absence of authority since it is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body.

There is a chain of authority and responsibility among people working at different levels of the organization. There cannot be efficient management without well-defined lines of command or superior-subordinate relationships at
various levels of decision-making.

Management as an art

As an art, management is about carrying out organisational functions and tasks through people. This art involves the application of techniques in :

  • Human and public relations
  • The delegation of authority: assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties
  • Communication: including decision-making and problem-solving.
  • Managing change.

Management as a science

  • Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.

Management as an organisation

As an organisation, management is about creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare organisations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public security management services could refer to the police and military.

Management as a person

Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say ‘The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term’. This could be referring to you, as the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee.

In schools with several promoted staff a ‘senior management team’ might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.

Management as a discipline

In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, experience and from certificated courses.

The functions of managers

We will briefly examine five main functions of managers, namely: planning, organising, directing,
supervising and evaluating.

UNIT-1

Educational Management: Meaning, Nature and Scope

  • At the end of this unit you will be able to:
  • Explain the meaning/concept of Management
  • Describe the nature of Management
  • Enumerate the functions of Management
  • Explain the meaning of Educational Management
  • Discuss the nature and scope of Educational Management
  • Enumerate the objectives of Educational Management
  • Illustrate the functions of Educational Management
  • Understand the evolution of management concepts in education
  • Explain the meaning of Educational Administration
  • Describe the functions of Educational Administration
  • Describe the nature and scope of Educational Administration

(i-a) What is Management?

Etymology:

The verb ‘manage’ comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand). The French word management (later ménagement) influenced the development of the meaning of
the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Management in business and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal.

Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose object of study is social
organization.

Another way people talk of management is to describe it as an art, a science, an organisation, a person, a discipline, or a process. Let us consider each of these in turn.

Management as an art

As an art, management is about carrying out organisational functions and tasks through people.

This art involves the application of techniques in:

  • Human and public relations
  • The delegation of authority: assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties
  • Communication: including decision-making and problem-solving.
  • Managing change.

Management as a science

Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.

Management as an organisation

As an organisation, management is about creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare organisations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public security management services could refer to the police and military.

Management as a person

Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say ‘The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term’. This could be referring to the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a ‘senior management team’ might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.

Management as a discipline

In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and fromcertified courses.

Management is a collection of processes, including such things as decision-making, problem-solving and action-planning. These processes involve the management of resources including human, material, financial and time. These processes are also known as the functions of managers.

Management may be briefly described according to its,

Basic functions

Management operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling.

Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action.

Organizing: Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place

Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization’s goals can be accomplished.

Commanding: Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it.

Controlling: Checking progress against plans.

Basic roles

Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees

Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information

Decisional: roles that require decision-making Skills Developed

Political: used to build a power base and establish connections

Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations.

Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate

Diagnostic: the ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation

Leadership: ability to lead and provide guidance to a sp specific group

Technical: Expertise in one’s particular functional area.

(i-b) What is Educational Management?

Meaning:

While Education is the provision of a series of learning experiences to students in order to impart knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with the ultimate aim of making them productive members of society, Educational Management is the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling the activities of an institution by utilising human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching, extension work and research.

Nature and Scope:

The National Policies on Education seek to bring about social, economic and cultural development in society by focusing on human resource development through education. Education, therefore, must have more relevant curricula, be dynamic, and empower students to bring about desirable social changes while preserving the desirable aspects of our existing culture.

The national developmental goals require the professional management of education to bring about the effective and efficient functioning of educational institutions. The scope of Educational Management is wide and includes the history and theories of management science, roles and responsibilities of an educational manager along with the
requisite managerial skills.

Unit II

The Department of School Education and Literacy administers the following agencies associated with secondary education:

1. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT):

The NCERT is an apex resource organisation which assists and advises the Central and State governments on academic matters related to school education. It provides academic and technical support for qualitative improvement of school education through its various constituents, viz.

The departments of the National Institute of Education, New Delhi, Central Institute of Educational Technology, New Delhi, Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education, Bhopal, and Regional Institutes of Education are located in Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Mysore and Shillong.

2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE):

The CBSE is an autonomous body working under the aegis of the MHRD. It‟s the second oldest board in the country having been established in 1929. The main objectives of the CBSE are:

i. To affiliate institutions in and outside the country.
ii. To conduct annual examinations at the end of classes X and XII.
iii. To conduct entrance examinations to professional courses for admission into medical and engineering colleges
iv. To update and design curricula.

3. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sanghatana (KVS):

The scheme of Kendriya Vidyalayas was approved by the Government of India in November, 1962 to provide uninterrupted education to the wards of transferable Central Government Employees.

4. Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS):

Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti, an autonomous organisation. Navodaya Vidyalayas are fully residential co-educational institutions providing education up to the senior secondary stage. Education in Navodaya Vidyalayas includes boarding and lodging, textbooks, uniforms etc. all of which are free for all students.

The scheme started with two experimental schools in 1985-1986 and has now expanded to 540 schools covering as many districts in 34 States and the Union Territories with more than 1.76 lakh students on the roll. More than 30,000 new students are admitted every year.

Admissions to Junior Navodaya Vidyalayas are made at the level of class VI through tests conducted in the concerned district in which all children who have passed class V from any of the recognised schools in that district are eligible to appear. The test is designed and conducted by the CBSE.

5. Central Tibetan School Administration (CTSA):

The Central Tibetan School Administration was established as an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Education, Government of India in 1961 and was registered under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 with the objective to run, manage and assist institutions set up for the education of Tibetan children living in India.

In order to provide modern education while preserving and promoting Tibetan culture and heritage, schools were set up in places with concentrated Tibetan populations in India.

6. National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS):

The National Open School was set up by the Government of India in 1989 with a view to providing education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode to those who cannot attend regular schools. Since its inception, the NIOS has discharged the responsibility of promoting the entire range of school education through the open learning system in the country.

It has performed a significant role in defining standards in open schooling, experimenting with innovations, assisting state-level organisations with professional resource support and expertise and dissemination of tested
innovation, curriculum and materials.

7. National Foundation for Teachers’ Welfare (NFTW):

The National Foundation for Teachers‟ Welfare was set up in 1962 under the Charitable Endowments Act, 1890. The main objective of the foundation is to provide financial assistance to teachers who may be in indigent circumstances. The following schemes for the welfare of teachers all over India are being operated by the foundation:

i. Financial assistance is given for the construction of Shikshak Sedans.
ii. Support is provided for the professional education of children of school teachers.
iii. Financial assistance (medical) is provided to teachers suffering from serious ailments.
iv. Financial support is made available to teachers for academic activity.

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