Salt Analysis Class 11 Practical PDF Summary
Greetings to all, Today we are going to upload the Salt Analysis Class 11 Practical PDF to assist you all. Salt analysis (also known as systematic qualitative analysis or qualitative inorganic analysis) concerns the identification of the cation and anion of an inorganic salt. This is done by performing a series of tests in a methodical manner and using the observations to confirm the absence or presence of detailed cations and anions. The salt analysis is an essential part of the CBSE and ISC Class 12 Chemistry practical examinations and is a topic that several students stumble with. If questions like “How to do the salt analysis?” and “How to memorize salt analysis procedures easily?” are puzzling you, look no additional! This report also touches on certain tricks and shortcuts that learners can employ to quickly examine their assigned salts in their chemistry practical examinations.
Salt Analysis Class 11 Practical PDF- What is Salt Analysis?
Salt analysis (also known as systematic qualitative analysis or qualitative inorganic analysis) involves the identification of the cation and anion of an inorganic salt. This is done by conducting a series of tests in a systematic manner and using the observations to confirm the absence or presence of specific cations and anions. The salt analysis is an integral part of the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry practical examinations and is a topic that several students struggle with. If questions like “How to do the salt analysis?” and “How to remember salt analysis procedures easily?” are puzzling you, look no further! This article also touches on certain tricks and shortcuts that students can employ to quickly analyze their assigned salts in their chemistry practical examinations.
In the examination, students will receive an inorganic salt whose chemical composition they must identify. This can be done by individually identifying the cation and the anion of the salt.
Step-by-Step Process for Salt Analysis
- Step 1: Obtain the inorganic salt whose cation and anion you must identify.
- Step 2: Conduct preliminary tests for the anion group-wise until you obtain a positive result. Anions and cations are classified into groups that share the same group reagent and therefore, have similar preliminary tests.
- Step 3: Once you get a positive result for a preliminary test for an anion, conduct a confirmatory test for that anion. (If you get a positive result, move on to step 4. If you don’t, go back to conducting preliminary tests for anions.)
- Step 4: Conduct preliminary tests for cations group-wise until you obtain a positive result.
- Step 5: Once a positive result is obtained, conduct a confirmatory test for that cation.
- Step 6: Now that the cation and the anion are identified, obtain the chemical formula of the salt by balancing the charges of the cation and anion. For example, if your cation is Fe3+ and your anion is Cl–, the chemical formula of the salt will be FeCl3.
Salt Analysis Class 11 Practical PDF- Short Notes
Salt Analysis Answer Format (Sample)
A sample answer format for salt analysis is provided below.
|Aim: To identify the acidic radical and the basic radical of the given inorganic salt.
Apparatus Required: Fill as per requirement.
(i) Preliminary Test for Anion:
(ii) Confirmatory Test for Anion:
(iii) Preliminary Test for Cation:
(iv) Confirmatory Test for Cation:
Result: The acidic radical is (anion), and the basic radical is (cation). Therefore, the given salt is identified to be (salt).
Tricks and Shortcuts for Salt Analysis
Always check the color of the salt first. Certain cations have colored salts. If the salt is coloured, you can directly conduct a preliminary test for the cation that forms salts of that colour. The cations that form coloured salts are tabulated below:
|Colour of the Inorganic Salt||Cation|
|Deep blue||Co2+ (anhydrous salt)|
|Greenish-blue||Cu2+ (hydrated salt)|
|Green||Ni2+ (hydrated salt)|
|Yellow, brown, or yellowish-brown||Fe3+|
|Rose-red||Co2+ or mercuric iodide (HgI2)|
|Purple or dark green||Cr3+|
If the salt is colorless, perform a flame test first (since the presence of 3 different cations can be confirmed by it). An easier way to perform the flame test is to pick up a chunk of the salt with test tube holders, pour a few drops of concentrated HCl on it, and expose it to the flame of a Bunsen burner.
If you do not gain any insight into the cation from the flame test (or from visual inspection), proceed with group-wise preliminary tests for cations. Note that some cations do not form salts with certain anions, as listed below.
- Ba2+, Sr2+, Pb2+, and Ca2+ do not form salts with the sulfate anion (SO42-).
- Only group 0, group 1, and group 2 cations form salts with the phosphate anion (PO43-).
If you identify one of these cations in the salt analysis, you need not conduct tests for the corresponding anions.
Finally, certain salts are very common in salt analysis examinations. For example, the most common salt containing the bromide ion (Br–) is NH4Br and the most common salt containing the calcium cation (Ca2+) is CaCl2. Also, some salts can be identified by observing their texture and appearance (for example, calcium carbonate has the texture of powdered chalk). Therefore, visiting your chemistry laboratory and physically examining the salts may help you quickly analyze the salt in the practical examination.
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