Rowlatt Act was Passed in PDF Summary
Dear friends, today we are going to share Rowlatt Act was Passed in PDF for all of you. The Rowlatt Act was passed on 8 March 1919. This act was started by the British government in the name of a committee named ‘Sir Sidney Rowlett’ to crush the revolutionaries of India.
This committee submitted its report in 1918. In February 1919, two MLAs were brought to the Central Legislature on the basis suggested by the committee. Then this act was known as the ‘Rowlett Act’ or ‘Black Law’. Mahatma Gandhi strongly opposed this act and the British had also called the British government wicked people.
Through this Rowlatt Act, the British government was given the right to imprison any Indian without trial in court and in jail. The Rowlatt Act was officially known as the Anarchic and Revolutionary Crimes Act, of 1919. It was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in March 1919.
Rowlatt Act was Passed in PDF: Introduction
The Imperial Legislative Council passed the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, of 1919, widely known as the ‘Rowlatt Act,’ in February 1919. This Act gave the British government the power to imprison any person accused of conspiring their overthrow, for up to two years without trial and to execute them summarily without a jury.
It replaced the Defence of India Act (1915), enacted during the First World War, with a permanent statute that granted the British additional control over Indians, based on the recommendation of a commission led by Justice S.A.T. Rowlatt. People and Indian leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi, were outraged by the Rowlatt Act, usually known as the “Black Act” or “Black Bill,” which sparked the horrific Jallianwala Bagh massacre in April 1919 and the ensuing Non-Cooperation Movement.
In March 1922, the British colonial administration abolished the Rowlatt Act, the Press Act, and twenty-two other laws after adopting the recommendations of the Repressive Laws Committee.
Role of the Rowlatt committee in the enactment of the Act
The Rowlatt Committee was a “sedition committee” formed by the British Indian Government in 1917, presided by Sidney Rowlatt, an Anglo-Egyptian judge. The Rowlatt Committee was formed to assess political terrorism in India, particularly in the Bengal and Punjab provinces, as well as its impact and connections to the German government and the Russian Bolsheviks.
It was established at the end of World War I, at a time when the Indian revolutionary movement was particularly active and had gained significant recognition, potency, and pace. The Rowlatt Act, an expansion of the Defence of India Act (1915), was enacted in response to the threat in Punjab and Bengal, based on the committee’s recommendations.
This Act was intended to restrict the press by imprisoning political activists without trial and arresting any person accused of sedition or treason without a warrant.
The major grounds for the Act’s enactment, according to the committee, are:
- Difficulty in obtaining proof for the possession of weapons and arms, and evidence to satisfy the ordinary courts.
- Inadequacy of police investigation, and facilities enjoyed by the criminals.
- Uselessness of confessions
- Protracted nature of trials due to cross-examination on unimportant matters.
- A large number of acquittals as compared to convictions
- Vilification campaign in the press
Rowlatt Act was Passed in PDF: Features
Here you can easily read detailed information about the Features of the Rowlatt Act:
- In February 1919, two laws were submitted to the central legislature based on the committee’s recommendations, which were chaired by Justice Rowlatt. The bills were labelled “black bills”.
- They provided the police with extensive rights to search an area and arrest anybody they want without a warrant.
- One well-known description of the legislation at the time was: No Dalil, No Vakil, No Appeal, which meant no pleas, no lawyer, and no appeal.
- The legislation was enacted to suppress the country’s increasing nationalist movement.
- This legislation essentially provided the government with the right to detain anybody accused of terrorism in the British Raj for up to two years without a trial, and it also gave the imperial authorities the power to deal with all cases of revolutionary activities in the British Raj.
- It granted the freedom to imprison suspects indefinitely without trial and to conduct in-camera trials for prohibited political activities without a jury, as well as stricter press restrictions and the capacity to make arrests without a warrant.
- The undertrials were also denied access to information about their accusers’ identities and the nature of the evidence provided against them for their claimed offences.
- After their sentences were served, the offenders were required to deposit security to assure they’re good behaviour and were barred from participating in political, religious, or educational activities.
- The Act mandates that individuals apprehended be tried by special tribunals formed for that purpose.
- This legislation also upheld the declaration of possession of treasonable literature as a punishable offence.
Rowlatt Act was Passed in PDF: Significance
Here you can read about the Significance of the Rowlatt Act:
Protests erupted all around the country in response to the Act. Freedom of the press and freedom of expression were equally restricted. When the nationalists realised that they had almost no opportunity of obtaining self-rule from the British, they began waging a relentless campaign against the British government.
The situation in Punjab deteriorated further since hundreds of people were imprisoned for minor offences as a result of this legislation. Gandhiji and others believed that constitutional opposition to the Act would be futile, therefore on April 6, a “hartal” was organised in which Indians would cease all businesses and fast, pray, and attend public gatherings in protest of the “Black Act,” as well as offering civil disobedience. It was known as the “Rowlatt Satyagraha”.
The success of the Delhi hartal on March 30 was overshadowed. However, growing tensions culminated in riots in Punjab and other provinces. The protest movement in Punjab was particularly strong, and two congress leaders were detained on April 10th.
People from neighbouring villages assembled for Baisakhi Day celebrations and to protest the deportation of two prominent Indian leaders to Amritsar, which ended in the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Gandhi brought an end to the resistance as he realized that Indians were not ready to take a stand in accordance with the ideal of nonviolence.
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