Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes PDF

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Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes PDF Summary

Dear readers, here we are providing a Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes PDF to all of you. Physiology and Injuries in Sports is a very important and sensitive topic which not only helps you to pass your exams and earn good marks but also helps in further life to deal with such situations.

There are many people who want to make their career in sport because it is one of the most emerging industries and also full of luxury, glamour, and limelight. If you are a class 12 student and want to learn more about Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes then go through the complete article.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes PDF

Physical Parameters Male Female
Height Taller Shorter
Body Mass More Less
Body Fat More Less
Lean Body Mass Less More
Physical Fitness
Strength Stronger due to greater muscle mass Less muscle mass
Endurance High due to more hemoglobin and VO2 Less
Flexibility Less More
Coordination and Agility Less More
Muscular System
Muscle Mass More Less
Muscle Composition More Less 1
Bones and Ligaments Longer, stronger but poor balance Less stronger
Attachments but better balance
Cardiovascular System
Cardiac Output Better cardiac output Lower cardiac output
Heart Size Bigger Shorter
Stroke Volume More Less
V02 Max More Less
Respiratory System
Lung Size Bigger Smaller
Tidal Volume More Less
Respiratory Function Better due to more haemoglobin Lack in certain parameters
content and VO2

Physiological Factors Determining Components of Physical Fitness
To understand the physiological factors, the components have to be understood.
The components of physical fitness are as follows

  • Muscular Strength

One of the basic requirements for success in all movements is muscular strength. It may be defined as the maximum force or tension a muscle or a muscle group can exert against a resistance. The development of strength is specific to the muscle or muscles involved in a particular activity.

  • Power

Power is the ability of the body to release maximum muscle contraction in the shortest possible time.

  • Speed

It is the rapidity with which one repeats successive movements of the same pattern. It may also be defined as the ability of a person to move quickly over a short distance.

  • Muscular Endurance

It may be defined as the ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a resistance/load or to sustain contraction for an extended period of time with less discomfort and more rapid recovery.

  • Agility

It is the ability of the person to change direction while moving at or near full speed. More specifically, agility is the ability of a person to change direction or body position quickly (as fast as he can) and regain body control to proceed with another movement.

  • Flexibility

In general, flexibility is that quality of the muscles, ligaments, and tendons that enables the joints of the body to move easily through a complete range of movement.

  • Size of the Muscle

The size of the muscle determines the strength possessed by an individual. Males have bigger and larger muscles due to which they have more strength than females.

  • Body Weight

There is a positive correlation between body weight and strength among international weightlifters. So people who weigh heavier are stronger and have more strength than people who are lighter.

  • Muscle Composition

Muscles consist of two types of fibers i.e. fast twitch fibres (white fibers) and slow twitch fibers (red fibers).

  • The intensity of the Nerve Impulse

A muscle consists of many motor units. The number of contracting motor units determines the total force.

  • Metabolic Power

The metabolic power depends upon the energy supplied through certain enzymes.

  • Aerobic Capacity

The ability of a person to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the working muscles influences the endurance.

  • Joint Structure

The joint structure of a person determines the range of motions and hence level the flexibility of an individual.

  • Age and Gender

The age of a person, as well as gender, determines the level of flexibility. Flexibility decreases with advancement of age and females are more flexible than males.

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