Nuclei Class 10 Notes PDF Summary
Greetings to all, Today we are going to upload the Nuclei Class 10 Notes PDF to assist students as well as tutors. Nuclei Class 12 Notes Physics in PDF are obtainable for free download. CBSE students can download the Nuclei class 12 Notes latest chapter-wise for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations. Class 12 Physics notes on chapter 13 Nuclei are also available for download. comprehensive notes which cover the latest syllabus of CBSE and NCERT. It includes all the topics given in NCERT class 12 Physics.
Download CBSE class 12th revision notes for chapter 13 Nuclei in PDF format for free. Download revision notes of Nuclei class 12 Notes and score high in exams. These are the Nuclei class 12 Notes prepared by a team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 13. Revision notes on exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days.
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Nuclei Class 10 Notes PDF – Short Notes
- Atomic Number: The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number. It is denoted by Z.
- Mass number: The total number of protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the mass number of the element. It is denoted by A.
No. of Protons, Electrons, Nucleons, and Neutrons in an Atom:
- Number of protons in an atom = Z
- Number of electrons in an atom = Z
- Number of nucleons in an atom = A
- A number of neutrons in an atom = N = A – Z.
- Nuclear Mass: The total mass of the protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the nuclear mass.
- Nuclide: A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom characterized by its atomic number Z and mass number A. It is represented as,
Where X = chemical symbol of the element, Z = atomic number, and A = mass number
- The atoms of an element that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers are called isotopes.
- Isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties.
- Isobars: The atoms having the same mass number but different atomic numbers are called isobars.
- Isotones: The nuclides having the same number of neutrons are called isotones.
- Isomers: These are nuclei with the same atomic number and same mass number but in different energy states.
- Electron Volt: It is defined as the energy acquired by an electron when it is accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt and is denoted by eV.
Atomic Mass Unit:
- It is of the actual mass of a carbon atom of isotope. It is denoted by amu or just by u.
- 1 amu =kg
- The energy equivalence of 1 amu is 1 amu = 931 MeV
- Discovery of Neutrons:
- Neutrons were discovered by Chadwick in 1932.
- When beryllium nuclei are bombarded by alpha-particles, highly penetrating radiations are emitted, which consists of neutral particles, each having mass nearly that of a proton. These particles were called neutrons.
- A free neutron decays spontaneously, with a half-life of about 900 s, into a proton, electron, and antineutrino.
- Size of the Nucleus:
- It is found that a nucleus of mass number A has a radius.
- This implies that the volume of the nucleus, which is proportional to R3is proportional to A.
- The density of the Nucleus: The density of the nucleus is constant; independent of A, for all nuclei, and the density of nuclear matter is approximate
which is very large as compared to ordinary matter, say water which is 103 kg m-3.
- Mass-Energy equivalence: Einstein proved that it is necessary to treat mass as another form of energy. He gave the mass-energy equivalence relation as E = mc2 Where m is the mass and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum.
- Mass Defect: The difference between the rest mass of a nucleus and the sum of the rest masses of its constituent nucleons is called its mass defect. It is given by-
- It may be defined as the energy required to break a nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons and to separate them to such a large distance that they may not interact with each other.
- It may also be defined as the surplus energy that the nucleus gives up by virtue of their attractions which they become bound together to form a nucleus.
- The binding energy of a nucleus is-
- Binding Energy per Nucleon: It is the average energy required to extract one nucleon from the nucleus.
It is obtained by dividing the binding energy of a nucleus by its mass number.
- These are the strong attractive forces that hold protons and neutrons together in a tiny nucleus.
- These are short-range forces that operate over a very short distance of about 2 – 3 fm of separation between any two nucleons.
The nuclear force does not depend on the charge of the nucleon.
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