Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 PDF Summary
Greetings toall today we are going to upload the Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 PDF to assist students. India is a wide country having different types of bio-forms and is ranked the 12th mega bio-diversity country in the world. The country has many plant species, flowering plants, non-flowering plants, species of animals, and a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters. In CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 5, you will learn about the Natural Vegetation and Wildlife of India. Go through these notes and explore them in detail.
|5.||Chapter||Geography Chapter 5|
|6.||Chapter Name||Natural Vegetation and Wildlife|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 PDF
Natural vegetation and Wildlife
Natural vegetation refers to a plant community, which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed virgin vegetation.
The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period. The species of animals are referred to as fauna. This huge diversity in flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following factors:
Land affects natural vegetation directly and indirectly.
- The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture.
- The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wildlife.
Different types of soils provide a basis for different types of vegetation.
- The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes, while wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation.
- The soil at the hill slopes has conical trees.
The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation, and soil. The fall in the temperature affects the vegetation and its growth.
The variation in the duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in latitude, altitude, season, and duration of the day. Due to the longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.
Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.
Types of Vegetation
In India, the following major types of vegetation are found:
- Tropical Evergreen Forests
- Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
- Montane Forests
- Mangrove Forests
Let’s study them in detail.
Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are present in the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.
- These forests grow best in areas having rainfall more than 200 cm with a short dry season.
- The trees reach great heights up to 60 meters or even above.
- It has vegetation of all kinds i.e trees, shrubs, and creepers giving it a multilayered structure.
- These forests appear green all year round.
- Important trees of this forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, and cinchona.
- Common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkeys, lemur, and deer.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
These forests are also called monsoon forests.
- They are spread over the region having rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm.
- They shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in the dry summer.
- In these forests, the common animals found are lions, tigers, pigs, deer, and elephants.
These forests are further divided into:
- Moist deciduous: These are found in areas having rainfall between 200 and 100 cm. Teak is the most dominant species in this forest. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, Khair, Kusum, Arjun, and mulberry are other commercially important species.
- Dry deciduous: These are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. There are open stretches, in which teak, sal, peepal, and neem grow.
The Thorn Forests and Scrubs
The natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country, including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.
- Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil to get moisture.
- The stems are moist to conserve water.
- Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation.
- Acacias, palms, euphorbias, and cacti are the main plant species.
- Common animals are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses, and camels.
Montane forests are the forests that are found in the mountains.
- The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meters.
- At high altitudes, generally, more than 3,600 meters above the sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation.
- Alpine grasslands are used for grazing.
- At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.
- The common animals found are Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jackrabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, and rare red panda, sheep, and goats.
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