Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes PDF Summary
Greetings to all, Today we are going to upload the Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes PDF to assist you all. Indian nationalism developed as an idea during the Indian independence movement combated against the colonial British Raj. In this chapter, students will get to know the story from the 1920s and study the non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements. Students will also get to explore how Congress sought to develop the national movement, how different social groups participated in the movement, and how nationalism captured the imagination of people. Understand more about Nationalism in India by studying CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 2. These CBSE notes are comprehensive and detailed, yet brief enough to glance through for exam preparations.
|6.||Chapter Name||Nationalism in India|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes PDF
The First World War, Khilafat, and Non-Cooperation
In India, the growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement. Due to colonialism, many different groups shared bonds, which were forged by the Congress under Mahatma Gandhi.
The war created a new economic and political situation in the years after 1919. Income tax was introduced and the prices of custom duties were doubled between 1913 and 1918, which led to a very difficult life for common people. In 1918-19 crops failed in India, resulting in a shortage of food accompanied by an influenza epidemic. At this stage, a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle.
The Idea of Satyagraha
In January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa and started the movement Satyagraha. Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. According to Mahatma Gandhi, people can win a battle with non-violence which will unite all Indians. In 1917, he traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. In the same year, he organized satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
The Rowlatt Act
In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi launched a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. The Act gives the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. The British government decided to clamp down on nationalists by witnessing the outrage of the people. On April 10th, police in Amritsar fired on a peaceful procession, which provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices, and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
According to Mahatma Gandhi, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. Non-cooperation movement is proposed in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. After many hurdles and campaigning between the supporters and opponents of the movement, finally, in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.
Differing Strands within the Movement
In January 1921, the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began. In this movement, various social groups participated, but the term meant different things to different people.
The Movement in the Towns
The middle-class started the movement and thousands of students, teachers, headmasters left government-controlled schools and colleges, lawyers gave up their legal practices. On the economic front, the effects of non-cooperation were more dramatic. The production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up when people started boycotting foreign goods. However, this movement slowed down due to a variety of reasons such as Khadi clothes being expensive, fewer Indian institutions for students and teachers to choose from, so they went back to government schools and lawyers joining back government courts.
Rebellion in the Countryside
The Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside where peasants and tribals were developing in different parts of India. The peasant movement started against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and a variety of other cesses. It demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
Swaraj in the Plantations
For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out and retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. After they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers left the plantations and headed home. But, unfortunately, they never reached their destination and were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Towards Civil Disobedience
In February 1922, the Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn because Mahatma Gandhi felt that it was turning violent. Some of the leaders wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils. Swaraj Party was formed by CR Das and Motilal Nehru. In the late 1920s, Indian politics was again shaped because of two factors. The first effect was the worldwide economic depression and the second effect was the falling agricultural prices. The Statutory Commission was set up to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. In 1928, Simon Commission arrived in India and it was greeted by the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’. In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalized the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day.
The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement
On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Among the demands, the most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax which is consumed by the rich and the poor. The demands needed to be fulfilled by 11 March or else Congress would start a civil disobedience campaign. The famous salt march was started by Mahatma Gandhi accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
How Participants saw the Movement
The Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement. They became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate. The poorer peasants joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.
The Limits of Civil Disobedience
Dalits, addressed as untouchables were not moved by the concept of Swaraj. Mahatma Gandhi used to call them Harijans or the children of God, without whom swaraj could not be achieved. He organized satyagraha for the untouchables but they were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate.
The Sense of Collective Belonging
Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. Finally, in the twentieth century, the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay created the image and in the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
In the first half of the twentieth century, various groups and classes of Indians came together for the struggle for independence. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi attempted to resolve differences and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. In other words, what was emerging as a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.
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