Morphology of Flowering Plants PDF Summary
Greetings to all, Today we are going to Upload the Morphology of Flowering Plants PDF to assist students as well as tutors. There are nearly 300,000 known species of flowering plants on the Earth, and in Class 11 Chapter 5, we are concerned about the morphology of the same. Being one of the essential chapters of Biology, students are required to collect in-depth knowledge to score significantly in their exams. Also, students will get to revise concepts like a simple and compound leaf, pinnately compound leaf, and palmate compound leaf by going through the Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Notes. Besides studying books, you can refer to the Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 notes PDF prepared by subject experts.
Detailed Table of the Chapter 5 Notes – Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes PDF
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Morphology of Flowering Plants PDF
Morphology is the name given to the science that deals with the study of the form and structure of things. No matter which plant you take, the morphology of a flowering plant includes the roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Let us have a look at the flowering plants and morphology of flowering plants notes in detail.
Table of Contents
- Flowering Plants
Flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants with 300,000 known species. These are also known as angiosperms and produce seed-bearing fruits. It is believed that the flowering plant evolved from gymnosperms during the Triassic period and the first flowering plant emerged 140 million years ago.
Flowers are the reproductive organs of the flowering plants and the most important feature that distinguishes them from other seed plants. These have led to the speciation of angiosperms that helps them to adapt to diverse ecological niches.
The root is a brown, nongreen, and underground part of a plant. Root with their branches is collectively called a root system. There are three types of the root system:
- Taproot System
The taproot is mainly found in dicotyledonous plants. It develops from the radicle of the germinating seed, along with its primary roots and branches, giving rise to the taproot system. Mustard seeds, mangoes, grams, and banyan are a few examples of dicotyledonous plants with a taproot system.
- The Fibrous root System
The fibrous root is mainly found in ferns and in all monocotyledonous plants. This root develops from thin, moderately branching roots or primary roots, growing from the stem. The fibrous root system usually does not penetrate deep into the soil, therefore, on full maturity, these roots look like a mat or a carpet on the floor. Wheat, paddy, grass, carrots, onion, grass are a few examples of monocotyledonous plants with the fibrous root system.
- The Adventitious root System
The roots which originate from any part of the plant body other than the radicle is called the adventitious root system. This root system is mainly found in all monocotyledonous plants. In plants, the adventitious root system is used for various purposes, like mechanical support, vegetative propagation, etc. Banyan tree, maize, oak trees, horsetails are a few examples of monocotyledonous plants with the adventitious root system.
Functions of Root
General functions of a root include:
- Absorption of water and minerals.
Regions of Root
The three regions of a root are-
- The Root Cap.
- The region of maturation.
- The region of Elongation.
Another essential part of the plant is its stem. It is the ascending part of the plant axis that bears branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and helps in the conduction of water and minerals. It is the aerial part of the plant, developed from the plumule of an embryo or the germinating seeds.
Young stems are usually green in color and subsequently become woody and brown. The stem is modified into certain structures according to the function they perform.
Characteristics of Stem
Some of the important characteristics of the stem are:
- The stem develops from the plumule and epicotyl of the embryo.
- The stem is erect and grows away from the soil towards the light.
- There is a terminal bud at the apex of the stem.
- In angiosperms, the shoot is differentiated into nodes and internodes.
- Young stems are green and photosynthetic.
Different forms of Stem
The stem is modified into the following different forms:
The leaf is a laterally borne structure and is usually flattened. It is the main photosynthetic part of the plants. It absorbs light and helps in the exchange of gases through the stomata.
The main parts of the leaf include the leaf base, petiole, and lamina. They grow at the node and bear a bud at the axil. The arrangement of veins and veinlets in a leaf is called venation. The leaves are green because of the presence of the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll and have a tiny pore or opening called stomata, where the gaseous exchange takes place.
Leaves can be further classified into simple and compound leaves, which are based on the pattern of a leaf blade. There are other types of leaves that are classified based on their shapes, arrangements of leaves, and Venation.
Characteristics of Leaves
- The leaf arises from the node.
- It is exogenous in origin.
- It has a bud at its axis.
- The growth of the leaf is limited.
- The leaves do not bear an apical bud.
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