Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes PDF

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Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes - Description

Greetings to all, today we are going to upload the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes PDF for the assistance of all the students as well as teachers. You have checked that the earth’s crust is made up of further minerals embedded in the rocks. Different metals are extracted from these minerals after refinement. In all phases of development, human beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites. In this branch, you will understand minerals, their classification, how to preserve minerals, different types of energy resources, and how we can preserve these energy resources. We have compiled all these significant topics in CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 – Minerals and Energy Resources. Go via these to get an insight into the chapter.

Detailed Table of the Chapter 5 Notes – Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 PDF

1.   Board CBSE
2.   Textbook NCERT
3.   Class Class 10
4.   Subject Social Science Notes
5.   Chapter Geography Chapter 5
6.   Chapter Name Minerals and Energy Resources
7.   Category CBSE Revision Notes

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes PDF

What is a Mineral?

The mineral is defined as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.” Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc. Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. Minerals generally occur in the following forms:

  • In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults, or joints.
  • In sedimentary rocks, several minerals occur in beds or layers.
  • The decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents also form the minerals.
  • Minerals also occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
  • The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals.

Classification of Minerals

Classification of Minerals

Ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
Iron Ore

  1. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore.
  2. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron, up to 70%. It has excellent magnetic qualities.
  3. Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore. It contains 50 to 60% iron.

The major iron ore belts in India are:

  • Odisha-Jharkhand belt
  • Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt
  • Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt
  • Maharashtra-Goa belt


  1. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferromanganese alloy.
  2. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture 1 tonne of steel.
  3. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.

Non-Ferrous Minerals

Non-ferrous minerals include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold. These minerals play a vital role in several metallurgical, engineering, and electrical industries.

  1. Malleable, ductile, and good conductor of heat and electricity.
  2. Mainly used in electrical cables, electronics, and chemical industries.
  3. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan, and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.


  1. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminum silicates.
  2. Aluminum is obtained from bauxite. Aluminum has good conductivity and great malleability.
  3. Deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills, and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.

Non-Metallic Minerals

  1. Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It can be clear, black, green, red, yellow, or brown.
  2. Mica is the most indispensable mineral used in the electric and electronic industries.
  3. It has excellent dielectric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties, and resistance to high voltage.
  4. Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau.

Rock Minerals

  1. Limestone is found in rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.
  2. It is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

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