Matter in Our Surrounding Class 9 Notes PDF Summary
Hello everyone, today we are going to upload Matter in Our Surrounding class 9 notes in PDF mater for the help of all of you. The detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Chemistry for all the practice questions given here will help you understand the basic concepts covered in the chapter. The matter is an important concept in science, and it forms the basis of topics taught in later classes. Learn more additional by reading NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science (Chemistry) Chapter 1 – Matter in Our Environment. Solutions are designed with the help of dedicated teachers who have a thorough conceptual understanding and years of experience. The content is well structured so that it becomes easy for the students to learn and understand. Also, the content in the NCERT solutions has been updated as per the latest NCERT syllabus.
We also ensure that the NCERT solutions provided are designed to meet the many criteria that an assessor usually looks for. This ensures that the answers are highly relevant and maintains their informative quotient through different sections.
|6.||Chapter Name||Matter In Our Surrounding|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Matter In Our Surrounding Class 9 Notes PDF
States of Matter
- Matter can be classified as solid, liquid, and gas on the basis of interparticle forces and the arrangement of particles.
- These three forms of matter are interconvertible by increasing or decreasing pressure and temperature. For example, ice can be converted from a solid to liquid by increasing the temperature.
|Shape and volume||Fixed shape and volume||No fixed shape but has volume||Neither definite shape nor volume|
|Arrangement of molecules||Regular and closely arranged||Random and little sparsely arranged||Random and more sparsely arranged|
|Fluidity||Cannot flow||Flows from higher to lower level||Flows in all directions|
|Movement||Negligible||Depends on interparticle attraction||Free, constant, and random|
|Interparticle space||Very less||More||Large|
|Rate of diffusion||Negligible||It depends on interparticle attraction.||Maximum|
Atomic view of the three states of matter
The phenomenon by which molecules in a liquid state undergo a spontaneous transition to the gaseous phase at any temperature below its boiling point is called evaporation.
- For example, the gradual drying of damp clothes is caused by the evaporation of water to water vapor.
Factors affecting evaporation
- Temperature: The rate of evaporation increases with an increase in temperature.
- Surface area: The rate of evaporation increases with an increase in surface area.
- Humidity: The rate of evaporation decreases with an increase in humidity.
- Wind speed: The rate of evaporation increases with an increase in wind speed.
Cooling due to evaporation
During evaporation, the particles of a liquid absorb energy from the surroundings to overcome the inter-particle forces of attraction and undergo a phase change. The absorption of heat from the surroundings makes the surroundings cool.
For example, sweating cools down our bodies.
Physical Nature of Matter
- A physical property is that aspect of the matter that can be observed or measured without changing its nature or composition.
- It is independent of the amount of matter present.
- Physical properties include appearance, color, odor, density, texture, melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.
Characteristics of Particles of Matter
The matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
- Everything that we can touch, see, hear, taste, and also smell is matter.
- It is made up of really tiny particles which cannot be seen through the eye..
- Particles of matter have spaces between them
- This characteristic is one of the concepts behind the solubility of a substance in other substances. For example, on dissolving sugar in water, there is no rise in water level because the particles of sugar get into the interparticle spaces between the water particles.
- Particles of matter are always in motion
- Particles of the matter show continuous random movements due to the kinetic energy they possess.
- A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles, making them move more vigorously.
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