Jawaharlal Nehru Biography in English PDF Summary
Dear readers, today we are going to offer Jawaharlal Nehru Biography in English PDF for all of you. Jawaharlal Nehru was a famous Indian anti-colonial nationalist, social democrat, and secular humanist and he was the first Prime Minister of independent India. Nehru was also a popular author who was a central figure in India during the middle of the 20th century.
Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allahabad in India on November 14, 1889, and died on 27 May 1964 at the age of 74 in New Delhi, India. Nehru joined the Indian National Congress and joined Indian Nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi’s independence movement in 1919. Along with this, he also received the Bharat Ratna Award in 1955.
Jawaharlal Nehru Biography in English PDF Overview
|Prime Minister of the Republic of India|
26 January 1950 – 27 May 1964
(until December 1950)
|Succeeded by||Lal Bahadur Shastri|
|Prime Minister of the Dominion of India|
15 August 1947 – 26 January 1950
|Preceded by||Dominion established|
|Succeeded by||Dominion abolished;
Himself as Prime Minister of the Republic
|Vice-President of the Viceroy’s Executive Council|
2 September 1946 – 15 August 1947
|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
17 April 1952 – 27 May 1964
|Succeeded by||Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit|
|Constituency||Phulpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|Born||14 November 1889
Allahabad, North-Western Provinces, British India
|Died||27 May 1964 (aged 74)
New Delhi, India
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
(m. 1916; died 1936)
|Awards||Bharat Ratna (1955)|
Jawaharlal Nehru Biography PDF in English
- He was a member of the Congress Party that led the freedom movement against British rule. He was the chief framer of domestic and international policies during his term as PM between 1947 and 1964. It was under Nehru’s supervision that India launched its first Five-Year Plan in 1951.
- Nehru was one of the architects to steer the nascent nation towards the brilliance envisioned by countless revolutionaries of the Indian Freedom struggle.
Childhood & Early Life
- Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889, in a wealthy Kashmiri Brahmin family in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father, Motilal Nehru was a renowned advocate and also an influential political activist.
- Nehru’s family was elitist in most of their practices and English was spoken and encouraged. His father, Motilal Nehru appointed English and Scottish teachers to supervise his children’s education at home.
- For higher education, young Nehru was sent to Harrow school, then later to Cambridge University in England to obtain a degree in natural sciences. After spending two years at the Inner Temple, London, he qualified as a barrister.
- During his stay in London, Nehru studied subjects like literature, politics, economics, and history. He got attracted to the ideas of liberalism, socialism and nationalism. In 1912, he returned to India and joined the Allahabad High Court Bar.
- Nehru got married to Kamala Kaul on 8 February, 1916. Brought up in a traditional Hindu Brahmin family, Kamala felt like an outsider amongst the progressive Nehru family but tried her best to adapt to the family ethos and values. During the Non-Cooperation movement of 1921, Kamala played a vital role by organizing groups of women and picketing shops selling foreign cloth and liquor in Allahabad.
- On19 November 1917 she gave birth to a daughter, who came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini. Kamala died from tuberculosis in Switzerland on February 28, 1936, while Jawaharlal Nehru was in prison.
His Role in Freedom Struggle
- Although he dabbled in political affairs since his return to India, by participating in Indian National Congress sessions and in Besant’s Home Rule Movement, Nehru wholeheartedly embraced a political career only in 1919 in the wake of the Jallianwallah bagh Massacre.
- He followed Gandhi’s directives and was imprisoned for participating in the first civil disobedience campaign as general secretary of the United Provinces Congress Committee in 1921.
- His time in jail helped him achieve a deeper understanding of the Gandhian philosophy and the nuances of the non-cooperation movement. He was moved by Gandhi’s approach to dealing with caste and “untouchability”.
- With time, Nehru emerged as a popular and influential nationalist leader, particularly in Northern India. He was elected as the president of the Allahabad municipal corporation in 1920.
- His loyalty to Congress remained unwavering in the face of the rift created in the party due to Gandhi’s decision to adjourn the Non-cooperation movement post-Chauri Chaura incident. He refused to move to the Swaraj Party established by his father and Chittaranjan Das in 1922.
- Jawaharlal Nehru travelled to European nations like Germany, France and the Soviet Union in 1926 with his family and sought meetings with several Communists, Socialists, and radical leaders from Asia and Africa. Nehru was also impressed with the economic system of the communist Soviet Union and wished to apply the same in his own country.
- In 1927, he became a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels, the capital city of Belgium.
- During the Guwahati Session of the Congress in 1928, Mahatma Gandhi announced that the Congress would launch a massive movement if the British did not grant dominion status to India within the next two years.
- It was believed that under the pressure of Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose, the deadline was reduced to one year. Jawaharlal Nehru criticized the famous “Nehru Report” prepared by his father Motilal Nehru in 1928 that favoured the concept of a “dominion status for India within British rule”.
- In 1930 Mahatma Gandhi supported the name of Nehru as the next president of the Congress. The decision was also an attempt to abate the intensity of “communism” in Congress.
- The same year, Nehru was arrested for the violation of the Salt Law. In 1936, Nehru was re-elected as the president of the Indian National Congress. Sources suggest that a heated argument between the old and young leaders took place in the Lucknow Session of the party.
- The young and “new-gen” leaders of the party had advocated for an ideology, based on the concepts of Socialism.
- In the 1942 Quit India Movement, Nehru vehemently rallied for ‘Purna Swaraj ‘or complete political independence for India. He was arrested on August 8 of the same year and was imprisoned till June 15, 1945.
- Post his release, he threw himself into a series of rigorous discussions and negotiations with the British Government that ultimately led to the attainment of freedom in 1947. Nehru fought hard against the proposed partitioning of the country by the last Viceroy Lord Mountbatten.
- He failed to obtain enough support from Mohammed Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League and reluctantly gave in to it.
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