Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF Summary
Adoration to all, today we are going to upload the Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF to assist students as well as tutors. To make studying more fun and easy, the CBSE revision notes for class 11 Chemistry chapter 13 hydrocarbons are available from the PDFfile site for free download. Students can also guide to these PDF notes, which include a detailed explanation for all the important chapter topics. Using these PDF notes will enable the students to understand every topic clearly and come out with dashing colors in the exams.
When we speak about hydrocarbons in chemistry, they can be explained as organic compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon elements. Yet, when we study this topic in class 11, which is found in the CBSE books of chapter 13, we need to learn about various things such as the classification of hydrocarbons, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and understand the equations as well, solving different problems, and many more.
Detailed Table of the Chapter 13 Notes – Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF
|5.||Chapter||Chemistry Chapter 13|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF – Short Notes
A compound of carbon and hydrogen is known as hydrocarbon.
• Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains only C—C single bonds.
For example: Ethane CH3—CH3
• Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
• Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds.
• Alicyclic Compounds
Cyclic compounds which consist only of carbon atoms are called alicyclic or carboeyclic compounds.
• Heterocyclic Compounds
Cyclic compounds in which the ring atoms are of carbon and some other element (For example, N, S, or O) are called heterocyclic compounds.
Alkanes are the simplest organic compounds made of carbon and hydrogen only.
They have the general formula CnHC2n+2(where n = 1, 2, 3, etc.)
The carbon atoms in their molecules are bonded to each other by single covalent bonds. Since the carbon skeleton of alkanes is fully saturated’ with hydrogens, they are also called saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes contain strong C —C and C —H bonds. Therefore, this class of hydrocarbons are relatively chemically inert. Hence they are sometimes referred to as paraffin (Latin parum affinis = little affinity). First three members of this class can be represented as
In methane carbon forms single bonds with four hydrogen atoms. All H—G—H bond angles are of 109.5°. Methane has a tetrahedral structure. C—C and C—H bonds are formed by head-on overlapping of sp3 hybrid orbitals of carbon and Is orbitals of hydrogen atoms.
- Nomenclature Guidelines
Use the following step-by-step procedure to write the IUPAC names from the structural formulas. Consider the following structural formula:
Step 1.Identify the longest chain: In the given example, longest chain has seven carbons. The seven carbon chain is heptane.
Step 2.Number the chain: The chain is numbered from left to right. This gives lowest numbers to the attached alkyl group.
Step 3. Identify the alkyl group: There are two methyl groups at C-2 and C-3, there is one ethyl group of C-4.
Step 4. Write the IUPAC name: In this case the IUPAC name is 4-Ethyl-2,3-dimethyl heptane. Always keep in mind (a) Numbers are separated from each other by commas. (b) Numbers are separated from names by hyphens, (c) Prefixes di, tri are not taken into account in alphabetising substituent names.
• Newman Projections
In this projection, the molecule is viewed at the C—C bond head on.
Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF- Important Points
• Relative Stability of Conformations
In staggered form of ethane there are maximum repulsive forces, minimum energy and maximum stability of molecule. On the other hand, when the staggered form changes in the eclipsed form the electron clouds of the carbon hydrogen bonds come closer to each other resulting in increase in electron cloud repulsions, molecule have to possess more energy and thus has lower stability.
Torsional Angle: Magnitude of torsional strain depends upon the angle of rotation about C—C bond. This angle is also called dihedral angle or torsional angle.
Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) in their molecule.
They have the general formula
Let us consider (H2C=CH2) for illustrating the orbital make up of alkenes.
In ethylene the carbon atoms are sp2 hybridized- They are attached to each other by a a bond and a σ bond.
The a bond results from the overlap of two sp2 hybrid orbitals. The π bond is formed from overlap of the unhybridized p-orbitals. Ethylene is a planar molecule.
Points to be noted
(i) The carbon-carbon double bond in alkenes is made up of one σ and one π-bond.
(ii) Alkenes are more reactive than Alkanes. This is due to the availability of n electrons.
In IUPAC system
(i) The name of the hydrocarbon is based on the parent alkene having the longest ‘ carbon chain of which double bond is apart.
(ii) This chain is numbered from the end near the double bond and its position is indicated by the number of the carbon atom not which the double bond originates,
Structural Isomerism: Ethene and propene have no structural isomers, but there are three structures of butenes.
Of these, two are straight chain structures with the difference being in the position of double bond in the molecules.
These are position isomers and third structure is a branched-chain isomer.
Geometrical Isomerism: It is known that a carbon-carbon double bond is made up of one σ bond and one π-bond. The π-bond presents free rotation about the double bond.
Alkynes are characterised by the presence of a triple bond in the molecule.
Their general formula is CnH2n-2.
The first and the most important member of this series of hydrocarbons is acetylene, HC=CH, and hence they are also called the Acetylenes.
Structure: Let us consider ethyne (HC=CH) for illustrating the orbital make up of ethyne. In ethyne, the carbon atoms are sp hybridized. They are attached to each other by a σ-bond and two π-bonds.
The σ -bond results from the overlap of two sp hybrid orbitals. The π bonds are formed from the separate overlap of the two p-orbitals from the two adjacent carbon atoms.
The other sp hybrid orbital of each carbon atom forms a σ bond with another carbon or hydrogen atom. Ethyne is a linear molecule.
Hydrocarbon Class 11 Notes PDF- Points to be noted
Points to be noted:
(i) The carbon-carbon triple bond in alkynes is made up of one σ and two π bonds.
(ii) Like alkenes, alkynes undergo addition reaction. These reactions are due to the availability of more exposed π electrons.
IUPAC System: The IUPAC names of alkynes are obtained by dropping the ending-ane of the parent alkane and adding the suffix-yne. Carbon chain including the triple bond is – numbered from the end nearest this bond. The position of the triple bond is indicated by prefixing the number of carbon preceding it to the name of the alkyne.
From calcium carbide: Ethyne is prepared by treating calcium carbide with water. Calcium carbide is prepared as follows:
From vicinal dihalides: When reacted with vicinal dihalides, alcoholic potassium hydroxide undergo dehydrohalogenation. One molecule of hydrogen halide is eliminated to form alkenyl halide which on treatment with sodamide gives alkyne.
• Aromatic Hydrocarbons
These hydrocarbons are also known as ‘arenes’. Most of such compounds were found to contain benzene ring.
Aromatic compounds containing benzene ring are known as benzenoids and those not containing a benzene ring are known as non-benzenoids. Some examples of arenes are given below.
Structure of Benzene: By elemental analysis, it is found that molecular formula of benzene is C6H6. This indicates that benzene is a highly unsaturated compound. In 1865, Kekule gave the cyclic planar structure of benzene with six carbons with alternate double and single bonds.
The Kekule structure indicates the possibility of two isomeric 1,2-dibromobenzenes. In one of the isomers, the bromine atoms are attached to the doubly bonded carbon atoms whereas in the other they are attached to the singly bonded carbon.
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