# Electricity Class 10 Notes PDF

## Electricity Class 10 Notes PDF Summary

Greetings to all, Today we are going to Upload the Electricity Class 10 Notes PDF to assist students as well as tutors. Chapter 12 Electricity Class 10 Notes are crucial to study as they form a base of the principles that you will apply later on. yet, it is imperative to take a good look at this chapter because it is easy to predict that a lot of questions will be asked from here for any exam. The electricity chapter Class 10 notes come into play here. Prepared by the experts, these revision notes will help to give you an edge over your peers as you will have a clear and lucid explanation of the difficult topics in straightforward language.
Class 10 Science Chapter 12 notes are available in PDF format and app to download for free so students can use them to quickly revise the important concepts of Class 10 Science Chapter 12 electricity with no stress or panic.

 1 Board CBSE 2 Textbook NCERT 3 Class Class 9 4 Subject Notes 5 Chapter Chapter 2 6 Chapter Name Electricity 7 Category CBSE Revision Notes

## Electricity Class 10 Notes PDF – Short Notes

Current and Voltage
Atomic Structure

• An atom has a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons revolving around it.
• Valence electrons in metals are free to move within the conductor and constitute an electric current.

Conductors and Insulators
A substance that offers comparatively less opposition to the flow of current is known as conductors and substances which offer larger opposition are insulators.
Electric Potential and Potential Difference
The electric potential at a point is defined as work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point. The potential difference between two points is defined as the difference in electric potentials at the two given points.
Models of Electric Current
Electric Current(I)
The flow of electric charges is called an electric current, i.e,  I = Q / t
Electron sea model
The electric current in a solid conductor is due to the drift of a ‘sea’ of free electrons, which are free to jump onto any neighboring atom.
Drift velocity of Electron
Average velocity which an electron attains inside a metallic conductor due to the application of an electric field due to the potential difference.
Battery and its working
A cell is a source of potential difference, which is created inside it due to internal chemical reactions.
At anode:                                  Cu(s)⇌Cu2+(aq)+2e−
At cathode:                                 Ag(aq)+2e−⇌2Ag(s)
A combination of cells is called a battery.
Electric Circuit
Electric circuit and circuit diagram

• A closed-loop path that a current take is called an electric circuit.
• The representation of an electric circuit through symbols is called a circuit diagram.

Resistance and Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s law
The current flowing through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the applied potential difference between the two ends of the conductor.
Resistance
Resistance is a measure of the opposition offered to the current flow in an electric circuit.
Factors affecting Resistance & How they affect
Resistance is:

• directly proportional to the length of the conductor.
• directly proportional to the nature of the conductor.
• directly proportional to the temperature of the conductor.
• inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the conductor.

Resistivity
The electrical resistance offered by a substance of unit length and unit cross-sectional area is called resistivity.
Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistors
Resistors that follow Ohm’s Law are called Ohmic resistors and those which do not follow it are called Non-Ohmic resistors.
Superconductors
Conductors which offer zero resistance to the flow of current are called superconductors.
Combination of resistors

• Two resistors are said to be combined in series if they carry the same current.
• Two resistors are said to be combined in parallel if the same potential difference is applied to them.

Equivalent Resistance of a system of resistors
The equivalent resistance of two resistors is given as:

• In series, Req=R1+R2
• In parallel, 1/Req= 1/R1+ 1/R2

EMF and Terminal Voltage

• EMF: The potential difference between the two terminals of a cell, when there is no current flowing through the circuit.
• Terminal voltage: The potential difference between the two terminals of a cell, when current is flowing through the circuit. ​​

### Electricity Class 10 Notes PDF – Most Important Topic

Electric Power and AC
Heating Effect of Current
Joule’s Law:

• Heat (H) ∝  square of the current (I).
• H ∝ Resistance of the given circuit.
• H ∝  Time (t) for which current flows through the conductor.

When a potential difference is established, it causes electrons to move, i.e. flow of current.
Electric Power

• The rate of doing work or rate of consumption of electrical energy is called Electric Power. If W is work done in time t, then P=W/t.
• S.I unit is Watt(W). One watt of power is consumed when 1 A of current flows at a potential difference of 1 V.
• The commercial unit of electrical energy is a kilowatt-hour (kWh).
• 1kWh = 3,600,000J = 3.6×106J
• Represented as P=I2R and P=V2/R
• One kilowatt-hour is defined as the amount of energy consumed when 1kW of power is used for 1 hour.

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