Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes - Description
Greetings to all, today we are going to upload the Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes PDF to help students as well as teachers. Why do we need a Constitution? How are constitutions drawn up? Who designs them and in what way? What are the worths that shape the constitutions in democratic states? Once a constitution is carried, can we make changes later, as needed by the changing conditions? These are some of the plain questions asked in Chapter 2 of CBSE Class 9 Political Science. To get a clear and crisp summary of all the concepts from this chapter, students can scan through these CBSE Notes Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2 Constitutional Design.
Given beneath in this report is the link to access the CBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes of Chapter 2 from Political Science. Students can just browse through these notes and prepare for the exam.
|5.||Chapter||Civics Chapter 2|
|6.||Chapter Name||Constitutional Design|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes PDF- Short Notes
Democratic Constitution in South Africa
Apartheid is a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa imposed by the white Europeans. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied it with arms and force and became the local rulers. The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them based on their skin color. The white rulers treated all nonwhites as inferiors. The non-whites did not have voting rights and were forbidden from living in white areas. The blacks, colored, and Indians fought against the apartheid system, from 1950.
Giving Rise to a New Constitution
As the protests and struggles against apartheid increased, the blacks could no longer be kept under the rule of the government through repression. The white regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. Nelson Mandela was released after 28 years in the Robben Island Prison.
Why the Need for a Constitution?
Take the example of South Africa to see why we need the constitution and what constitutions do. The oppressor and oppressed were planning to live together as equals in the new democracy. Each section wanted to safeguard its interests and wanted substantial social and economic rights. Through negotiations, both parties came to a compromise. The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote.
Find what constitutions do below:
- First, it generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together
- Second, it specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have the power to take which decisions
- Third, it lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are
- Fourth, it expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society
Making of the Indian Constitution
India’s Constitution was drawn up under very difficult circumstances. The country was born through a partition based on religious differences and was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
The Path to the Constitution
One of the major advantages for the makers of the Indian Constitution was that consensus about what a democratic India should look like had already evolved during the freedom struggle. In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India and In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like.
Both these documents included features such as Universal Adult Franchise, Right to Freedom and Equality, and protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India.
The Constituent Assembly
The drafting of the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946 and its first meeting was held in December 1946. Soon after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan and the Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan.
Why should we accept the Constitution made by this Assembly more than six decades ago?
- The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time.
- The second reason for accepting the Constitution is that the Constituent Assembly represented the people of India.
- Finally, how the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open, and consensual manner.
First, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause.
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