Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes PDF

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Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes PDF Summary

Dear students, here we are going to share Carbon and its Compounds class 10 PDF with you. In this post, we have provided a complete summary, question answer, and notes for this chapter 4 class 10th. The students who are preparing for the 10th class examinations can read complete chapter 4 here with notes. You can also check exam patterns, syllabus, short questions, and answers for this chapter here. Below we have provided the direct download link for Class 10th Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds PDF.

Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes PDF- Short Notes

1. Bonding in Carbon

Carbon forms covalent bonds. Formation of covalent bond: Covalent bond formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either the same or different.

Covalency: The number of electrons contributed by an atom for sharing is known as its covalency.

Characteristics of covalent compounds :
(i) These compounds are molecular in nature (i.e. they exist as single molecules)
(ii) These are insoluble in water and soluble in benzene, kerosene, petrol, etc.
(iii) These compounds are poor conductors of electricity.

2. Allotropy in Carbon

The property due to which an element exists in two or more forms, which differ in their physical and some of the chemical properties is known as “Allotropy” and the various forms are called “Allotropes”.

♦ Carbon exists in two allotropic forms (i) crystalline (ii) amorphous. The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite whereas the amorphous forms are coal, charcoal, lamp black, etc.

3. Unique Nature of Carbon

Catenation: The property of elements to form long chains or rings by self linking of their own atoms- through covalent bonds is called catenation. The extent of catenation depends upon the strength of the bonds between the atoms involved in catenation.

4. Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

In saturated compounds, the valencies of all the carbon atoms are satisfied by single bonds between them. While in the unsaturated compounds, the valencies of all the carbon atoms are not satisfied by single bonds, thus in order to satisfy their valencies, they form a double or triple bond between the carbon atoms.

5. Straight chain compounds: The compounds which contain a straight chain of carbon atoms e.g. normal butane (C4H10), normal pentane (5H12), etc.

6. Branched-chain compounds: Those compounds which are branched. e.g. iso-butane (C4H10), isopentane (C5H12), neopentane (C5H12) etc.

7. Closed chain compounds or Ring compounds :
Cyclic compounds are called closed chain or ring compounds e.g. cyclohexane (C6H12), cyclopentane (C5H10), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclopropane (C3H6), etc.

Prefix – word root – Suffix

Word Root: A word root indicates the nature of the basic carbon skeleton. In case a functional group is present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either as a prefix or as a suffix.

Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes PDF- Important Points

Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds :

(i) Combustion: Carbon compounds undergo combustion reactions to produce CO2 and H20 with the evolution of heat and light.
CH4 +O2 > CO2 + 2O + heat and light
(ii) Oxidation :

Oxidation

The substance which is used for oxidation is known as an oxidizing agent.

e.g alkaline KMnO4, acidified K2Cr2O7.

13. Some Important Carbon Compounds Alcohols: Compounds containing -OH group attached to a carbon atom are known as alcohols.

Example: Ethanol (C2H5OH): commonly known as alcohol.

Properties of ethanol: 1. Reaction with sodium: Due to its weakly acidic nature, ethanol reacts with sodium to liberate H2 gas.

Reaction with sodium

2. Reaction with conc : H2SO4 :

Reaction with conc H2SO4

Alcohol as a fuel: Alcohol (ethanol) is added to petrol up to 20% and the mixture is called “Gasol”.

Harmful Effects of Drinking Alcohol: If the alcohol used for drinking purposes contains some methyl alcohol (CH3OH) as impurity then it may cause serious poisoning and loss of eyesight.

It is habit-forming and damages the liver if taken regularly in large quantities.

Ethanoic Acid (Acetic Acid) CH3COOH:

Ethanoic acid, commercially known as acetic acid belongs to a group of acids called carboxylic acid.

Chemical properties :

(i) Reaction with a base :

2CH3COOH + 2NaOH → 2CH3COONaH2O

(ii) Reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates :

2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O

CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2

(iii) Reaction with alcohol : (Esterification)

Esterification

Esters react in the presence of an acid or a. base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid this reaction is known as saponification.

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