Bengal School of Painting Class 12 Notes PDF Summary
Dear readers, today we are going to offer the Bengal School of Painting Class 12 Notes PDF for all of you. The Bengal School of Art is generally known as Bengal School. It was an art movement. It is also a style of Indian painting. It was instituted in Bengal which was primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan.
In the early 20th century during the British Raj, the Bengal School flourished throughout the Indian subcontinent. In its early days, Bengal School was also known as the ‘Indian style of painting’. It was led by Abanindranath Tagore from 1871 to 1951 and was associated with Indian nationalism. He was the first major exponent of Swadeshi values in Indian art.
It was also being promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. B. Havell. E. B. Havell is the principal of the Government College of Art and Craft in Kolkata since 1896. Abanindranath Tagore was known as the principal artist and creator of the “Indian Society of Oriental Art”. He founded the influential Bengal school of art.
Bengal School of Painting Class 12 Notes PDF
The Main Features of the Bengal School of Painting :
Based on Indian Traditions: The Bengal School is fully based on the Indian traditional style as the subject matter of this school is based on Indian culture. The paintings are based on Indian themes like ‘Mahakali, ‘Shiva Parwati’Krishna and Gopis etc. proving the Bengal School’s Indian mentality.
Influence of Ajanta Paintings: Bengal school is influenced by Ajanta Art. The qualities of Ajanta Art like rhythm, grace, harmony etc. are visible in Bengal School.
Linear Delicacy: The lines of Bengal School resemble the Ajanta Paintings. Lines are delicate and rhythmic.
Softness and Rhythm in Figures: The figures of Bengal School give a soft effect and no hardness is there. They are graceful and have delicacy. They are rhythmic and provide a pleasant experience to the eyes.
Beautiful Colour Scheme: The colours of Bengal School are very attractive. The Wash technique is used and the colours are not bright and gaudy at all.
Influence of Mughal and Rajasthani Schools: Mughal and Rajasthani Schools’ influence can also be seen in some places.
Light and Shade: The softness in the paintings of Bengal School is due to its quality of brilliant light and shade.
Impressive and Indian Subject Matter: The subject matter of Bengal School is very impressive and Indian in character. The themes used are historical, religious, literary etc.
Bengal School of Paintings – Titles of 5 Famous Paintings
(i) Journey’s End – Abanindranath Tagore
(ii) Shiva Sati – Nandlal Bose
(iii) Rasa-Lila – Kshitindranath Majumdar
(iv) Radhika – M.A.R. Chughtai
(v) Meghdoot – Ram Gopal Vijayvargiya
Features of the Bengal School of Painting
- Bengal Artists gave a sense of direction to the first art movement in the country. They sowed confidence in the traditional values and rich heritage of Indin Art by giving the Indians a new cultural consciousness.
- The Bengal artist adopted a new Japanese water colour technique which was synthesized with European transparent water colour and Indian tempera called the ‘Wash technique’. ‘Wash became the hallmark of Bengal School.
- Bengal painters were inspired by Ajanta and Bagh, Mughal and Rajput and Shilpasastra. Chinese cloth painting and Japanese woodcuts were fused with themes mostly from Indian mythology and religion, epics and classical literature.
- During this period all types of painting including religious, social and historical events, birds and animals and landscapes were painted.
- The colours are soft without shadow and conventional perspective giving a mystic sense of space and atmosphere and diluting the impact of colour. The Bengal painters introduced the linear delicacy, rhythm and grace of Ajanta.
Characteristics of Bengal School
- Effects of Ajanta: Linear delicacy, rhythm and grace of Ajanta can be seen in the Bengal School of painting.
- Full of the traditional style of painting.
- Simple and clear painting, can be understood easily.
- Figures are delicate and graceful.
- There is no hardness and rhythm.
- Attractive colour scheme. The Wash technique is used to bring harmony to the painting.
- Impact of Mughal and Rajasthani paintings can be seen.
- Light and shade have added softness to the painting.
- Colour scheme is attractive with a mixture of tempera and Japanese wash technique.
- Colours are soft and have added spatial quality.
Abanindranath Tagore and E. B. Havell
- Havell and Abanindranath Tagore devised a curriculum that included and encouraged Indian art techniques and themes.
- “The first generation of Abanindranath pupils engaged in rediscovering the lost language of Indian painting,” says art historian Partha Mitter.
- Abanindranath was the prominent artist and founder of a vital periodical, Indian Society of Oriental Art, to raise awareness that contemporary Indians may profit from this rich history.
- In this way, he was also the first significant proponent of Swadeshi principles in Indian art, as seen by the founding of the Bengal School of Art.
- Many younger artists, such as Kshitindranath Majumdar (Rasa-Lila) and M. R. Chughtai, adopted Abanindranath’s new path (Radhika).
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