Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF

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Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF Summary

Greetings to all, today we are going to upload the Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF to assist you. To understand Class 10 Chemistry, it is critical to comprehend Acids, Bases, and Salts first because they form the basis of Chemistry. Class 10 Chapter 2 Acids Bases and Salts explains all the important concepts that students need to know to understand how the chemical reaction happens and how these chemical substances work. For a better understanding of this chapter, Class 10 science chapter 2 notes are prepared by subject experts in easy to understand language according to the latest CBSE syllabus and Class 10 science board exam pattern.

The effortless and to-the-point class 10 Chapter 2 science notes are organized primarily to make sure that these students have no stress in covering at least this specific chapter. Its step-by-step explanation will help students clearly understand all the critical concepts. These revision notes will avail students of thorough preparation, as well as solidify the base of the concepts so they can perform well in the exam.

1. Board CBSE
2. Textbook NCERT
3. Class Class 10
4. Subject  Notes
5. Chapter Chapter 2
6. Chapter Name Acids Bases and Salts
7. Category CBSE Revision Notes

Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF- Short Notes

Introduction to Acids, Bases, and Salts

Classification of matter

On the basis of
a) composition – elements, compounds, and mixtures
b) state – solids, liquids, and gases
c) solubility – suspensions, colloids, and solutions

Types of mixtures – homogeneous and heterogeneous
Types of compounds – covalent and ionic

What Is an Acid and a Base?

Ionisable and non-ionizable compounds

An ionizable compound when dissolved in water or in its molten state, dissociates into ions almost entirely. Example: NaCl, HCl, KOH, etc.
A non-ionizable compound does not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water or in its molten state. Example: glucose, acetone, etc.

Arrhenius theory of acids and bases

Arrhenius acid – when dissolved in water, dissociates to give H+ (aq) or H3O+ ion.
Arrhenius base – when dissolved in water, dissociates to give OH ion.

Examples

Acids 

  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • Sulphuric acid  (H2SO4)
  • Nitric acid (HNO3)

Bases

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
  • Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  • Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)

Bronsted Lowry theory

A Bronsted acid is an H+ (aq) ion donor.
A Bronsted base is an H+ (aq) ion acceptor.

Example

In the reaction: HCl (aq) + NH3 (aq) → NH+4(aq) + Cl (aq)
HCl – Bronsted acid and Cl: its conjugate acid
NH3 – Bronsted base and NH+4 : its conjugate acid

Physical test

Given are two possible physical tests to identify an acid or a base.

  1. Taste

An acid tastes sour whereas a base tastes bitter.
The method of taste is not advised as an acid or a base could be contaminated or corrosive.

  1. Effect on indicators by acids and bases

An indicator is a chemical substance that shows a change in its physical properties, mainly color or odor when brought in contact with an acid or a base.
Below mentioned are commonly used indicators and the different colours they exhibit:

  1. a) Litmus
    In a neutral solution – purple
    In acidic solution – red
    In basic solution – blue

Litmus is also available as strips of paper in two variants – red litmus and blue litmus.
An acid turns a moist blue litmus paper to red.
A base turns a moist red litmus paper to blue.

  1. b) Methyl orange
    In a neutral solution – orange
    In acidic solution – red
    In basic solution – yellow
  2. c) Phenolphthalein
    In a neutral solution – colorless
    In acidic solution – remains colorless
    In basic solution – pink

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