Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF Summary
Greetings to all, today we are going to upload the Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF to assist you. To understand Class 10 Chemistry, it is critical to comprehend Acids, Bases, and Salts first because they form the basis of Chemistry. Class 10 Chapter 2 Acids Bases and Salts explains all the important concepts that students need to know to understand how the chemical reaction happens and how these chemical substances work. For a better understanding of this chapter, Class 10 science chapter 2 notes are prepared by subject experts in easy to understand language according to the latest CBSE syllabus and Class 10 science board exam pattern.
The effortless and to-the-point class 10 Chapter 2 science notes are organized primarily to make sure that these students have no stress in covering at least this specific chapter. Its step-by-step explanation will help students clearly understand all the critical concepts. These revision notes will avail students of thorough preparation, as well as solidify the base of the concepts so they can perform well in the exam.
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Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes PDF- Short Notes
Introduction to Acids, Bases, and Salts
Classification of matter
On the basis of
a) composition – elements, compounds, and mixtures
b) state – solids, liquids, and gases
c) solubility – suspensions, colloids, and solutions
Types of mixtures – homogeneous and heterogeneous
Types of compounds – covalent and ionic
What Is an Acid and a Base?
Ionisable and non-ionizable compounds
An ionizable compound when dissolved in water or in its molten state, dissociates into ions almost entirely. Example: NaCl, HCl, KOH, etc.
A non-ionizable compound does not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water or in its molten state. Example: glucose, acetone, etc.
Arrhenius theory of acids and bases
Arrhenius acid – when dissolved in water, dissociates to give H+ (aq) or H3O+ ion.
Arrhenius base – when dissolved in water, dissociates to give OH− ion.
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
- Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
- Nitric acid (HNO3)
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
- Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
Bronsted Lowry theory
A Bronsted acid is an H+ (aq) ion donor.
A Bronsted base is an H+ (aq) ion acceptor.
In the reaction: HCl (aq) + NH3 (aq) → NH+4(aq) + Cl− (aq)
HCl – Bronsted acid and Cl−: its conjugate acid
NH3 – Bronsted base and NH+4 : its conjugate acid
Given are two possible physical tests to identify an acid or a base.
An acid tastes sour whereas a base tastes bitter.
The method of taste is not advised as an acid or a base could be contaminated or corrosive.
- Effect on indicators by acids and bases
An indicator is a chemical substance that shows a change in its physical properties, mainly color or odor when brought in contact with an acid or a base.
Below mentioned are commonly used indicators and the different colours they exhibit:
- a) Litmus
In a neutral solution – purple
In acidic solution – red
In basic solution – blue
Litmus is also available as strips of paper in two variants – red litmus and blue litmus.
An acid turns a moist blue litmus paper to red.
A base turns a moist red litmus paper to blue.
- b) Methyl orange
In a neutral solution – orange
In acidic solution – red
In basic solution – yellow
- c) Phenolphthalein
In a neutral solution – colorless
In acidic solution – remains colorless
In basic solution – pink
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